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Skywalker
Sonda Lambda
Pentru ca una din sursele majore de poluare o reprezinta gazele incomplet arse emise de motoare, constructorii au pus la punct sisteme de limitare a emisiilor poluante. Printre acestea se numara convertoarele catalitice, cunoscute sub numele de catalizatoare, amplasate pe tubulatura de evacuare a vehiculelor, si sondele de masurare a gazelor arse provenite din motor. Emisiile puternice de gaze de esapament apar atunci cind carburantul este incomplet ars, motorul este defectuos reglat, cind se porneste sau se opreste motorul sau la deplasarea cu viteza redusa. |n urma cu 25 de ani, constructorii au pus la punct un senzor – sonda Lambda sau oxigen senzorul – care poate masura cantitatea de oxigen evacuat. Localizata pe tubul de evacuare al gazelor arse, inaintea convertorului catalitic, sonda masoara in mod constant cantitatea de oxigen ramasa neconsumata in urma arderii. ECU (Electronic Central Unit – calculatorul central al masinii) foloseste semnalele primite de la sonda pentru a ajusta amestecul in vederea ob- tinerii amestecului ideal:14,8kg aer cu 1kg benzina fara plumb, pentru care asa-numitul factor Lambda este egal cu 1. Sonda Lambda asigura sporirea eficientei catalizatorului, dar si emisii reduse de noxe in atmosfera. |n sarcina maxima a motorului, de exemplu la viteza de virf, pentru a mentine viteza, sistemul este dezactivat pentru a preveni saracirea exagerata a amestecului. Sonda Lambda are rolul de a regla amestecul aerbenzina – prin comanda asupra injectiei de benzina – astfel incit acest amestec sa fie convenabil regimului de moment al motorului. Daca sonda detecteaza prea mult oxigen in gazul evacuat, inseamna ca motorul merge cu un amestec prea sarac (in combustibil); prin urmare, este marita cantitatea de benzina. Daca, dimpotriva, este prea putin oxigen in evacuare, inseamna ca amestecul este prea bogat si ECU reduce cantitatea de benzina din admisie. Defectarea sondei duce la functionarea anormala a motorului. La fel si defectiunile de etansare a admisiei de aer/circuitelor de reglaj vacuumatic – asa-numita admisie de „aer fals“ – induce in eroare sonda Lambda care da informatia ca amestecul este prea sarac. Prin urmare, electronica (ECU) va „pompa“ mai multa benzina in cilindri (corespunzator cantitatii de aer aspirat in mod normal + cel fals) si motorul va functiona cu detonatii in evacuare, eventual se „ineaca“. Dupa reglajul amestecului aer-combustibil necesar unei arderi cit mai bune, gazele evacuate ajung in asa-numitul „catalizator“ unde, intr-adevar, gazele se oxideaza la contactul cu platina. Functionarea defecta a unui motor cu o sonda de O2 (Lambda) defecta determina utilizarea de amestecuri bogate, rezulti nd un consum marit de benzina, deteriorarea in scurt timp a catalizatorului si uzura prematura a motorului, provocata de excesul de benzina care ajunge in baia de ulei. Prin folosirea unui astfel de echipament se poate ajunge la o reducere a emisiilor de pina la 90%.
Skywalker
Cum functioneaza sonda?
Amplasata pe tubulatura de evacuare, sonda Lambda este un conductor de curent electric a carui intensitate variaza in functie de cantitatea de oxigen care traverseaza sonda. |n interiorul acesteia exista un material ceramic poros, din dioxid de zirconiu (ZrO2). Intensitatea curentului prin placa de zirconiu variaza in functie de numarul de molecule de oxigen care traverseaza materialul ceramic. Deoarece sonda functioneaza optim doar la temperaturi mari, „la rece”, pina cind gazele de esapament ating temperaturi de 600 0C, sonda este incalzita de o rezistenta din interiorul ei, dupa care caldura ii va fi furnizata chiar de temperatura gazelor de esapament. Anumite modele de autoturisme au chiar mai multe sonde, amplasate inaintea catalizatorului (la unele modele exista sonde amplasate pe fiecare gura de evacuare de la fiecare cilindru in parte), dar si dupa catalizator, pe traseul tubulaturii de evacuare a gazelor arse. Constructorii recomanda verificarea sondei la fiecare 30 000 de kilometri sau la fiecare doi-trei ani de functionare a masinii si schimbarea sondei in cazul cind apar probleme in functionarea acesteia.
catalin61844
Foarte explicit,dar as' avea cateva intrebari pentru tine sau cine doreste sa-mi raspunda.
Vorbesti de sonda lambda si dai chiar si niste valori (14.8 kg O2/1l.benzina fara pb) Motoarele diesel au sonda lambda? Si daca au ,aceste valori vor fi sigur altele.Stii care sant ?
Sonda lambda se curata/ spala /sufla , sau se schimba?
Cat timp ia verificarea/schimbarea ei intr-un atelier autorizat?
Multumesc.
Skywalker
La valori banuiesc ca sunt aceleasi, eu am gasit asta pe net din greseala si am decis sa o postez aici ca poate la cine ii va folosi asta.
Sonda Lambda se inlocuieste asta stiu sigur
radu66490
14.8 volume de aer si un volum de benzina se numeste amestec stochionometric.....sau cam asa ceva,e amestecul perfect,in care benzina se arde complet
daca e de ex 15 atunci se chiama amestec sarac daca e 14 e bogat
sonda lamda citeste gasele de esapament si simte daca e benzina nearsa acolo si transmite informatia la calculatorul masinii si acesta regleaza cantitatea de benzina care intra in admisie astfel incat sa se obtina acel raport ideal de 14.8/1
dieselul nu are sonda lamba
sondele nu se repara doar se inlocuiesc
Jon59453
Nici la mine nu functioneaza sonda lambda,si ma vaiet uneori de consum mai mare decat ar trebui mai ales la viteze mici.As inlocui dar e scumpa (100 euroi).Daca miros mana pusa la teava de esapament(asa ca la romani blink.gif ) mirosul de noxe e destul de slab motiv pt care nu mi-am facut probleme la vreun eventual control.Motorul e refacut, bujiile arata ca dupa carte daca le verific.Una peste alta nu stiu ce sa fac pt ca am sonda d-aia antica euro 1.Dupa unii cica nu prea conteaza daca o ai ori ba.... :bandit:
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